pISSN 0705-3797 eISSN 2586-1298
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Episodes 2023; 46(4): 563-574

Published online December 1, 2023


Copyright © International Union of Geological Sciences.

Reconstruction of epithermal paleosurface phenomena: a key to provide a complex deposit model for the Börzsöny Mts. (Northern Hungary)

Gabriella B. Kiss1*, Sándor Józsa2, Zsolt Pataki3, Attila Bálint1,2, Edit Király4, Tibor Németh1

1 ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Department of Mineralogy, Budapest, Hungary
2 ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Department of Petrology and Geochemistry, Budapest, Hungary
3 Ipoly Erdő PLC., Királyrét Forestry, Szokolya, Hungary
4 Geology and Laboratory Department, Supervisory Authority of Regulatory Affairs, Budapest, Hungary

Correspondence to:*E-mail: gabriella.b.kiss@ttk.elte.hu

Received: July 5, 2022; Revised: March 27, 2023; Accepted: March 27, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The N Hungarian Börzsöny Mts. is part of the Neogene Inner Carpathian Volcanic Belt, composed mostly of intermediate-acidic magmatic and related volcanogenic sedimentary rocks. To our present knowledge, the central part of the Börzsöny Mountains hosts precious- and base-metal bearing low sulphidation (LS) type epithermal and a weak Cu-porphyry mineralisation beneath, though their detailed deposit model is not available, yet. Siliceous and calcareous hot spring deposits, as well as clayey alterations and iron ores with unsure genesis are known on the southeastern flanks of the Börzsöny Mountains. With the help of hot spring lithofacies analyses, mineralogical, petrographical, mineral chemical, whole rock geochemical and indicator mineral investigations, this work has clarified the origin of these mineralisations. We also show how reconstruction of epithermal paleosurface phenomena can help in providing a detailed deposit model and discover concealed parts of the system. The hot spring deposits are interpreted as surficial manifestations of the LS epithermal system; the native gold bearing siliceous deposit represents fluid upflow, while the unusually mixed carbonate-silica deposit represents lateral fluid outflow zones. The clay-rich limonitic iron ore is a supergene mineralisation; the presence of a concealed mineralisation beneath is proven by geochemical and indicator mineral studies.

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