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Episodes 2019; 42(3): 187-198

Published online September 1, 2019


Copyright © International Union of Geological Sciences.

Multiannual variability of spring discharge in Southern Poland

Adam Bartnik1, Piotr Moniewski2*

1 Department of Hydrology and Water Management, University of Lodz, 90-139 Lodz, Narutowicza 88, pok. 203, Poland
2 Regional Inspectorate of Environmental Protection in Lodz, 90-743 Lodz, Lipowa 16, Poland; *Corresponding author, E-mail: piotr.moniewski@geo.uni.lodz.pl

Correspondence to:E-mail: piotr.moniewski@geo.uni.lodz.pl

Received: November 9, 2018; Revised: May 29, 2019; Accepted: May 29, 2019

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Discharge is one of the most important quantitative characteristics of springs. It not only specifies the yield of groundwater but also reflects the water retention conditions of the aquifer. An analysis of a long-term spring discharges enables linking them to hydrogeological and meteorological conditions of their catchment area as well as calculation of seasonal and multiannual variability parameters. The paper includes data on 84 springs in southern Poland collected in PIG-PIB databases. The time series are of different duration and were carried out in the period 1973–2016. The spring discharge variability index varied widely: from two to over two thousand, wherein the percentage of slightly variable, variable, and highly variable springs ranged around 33%. The discharge of individual springs showed significant seasonal variations. The volume of outflowing water depended on current atmospheric conditions but it was primarily controlled by the hydrogeological type of springs and their location. Discharge of fissures springs as well as of low-flow outflows was generally more variable than that of porous or larger springs. Seasonality of discharge depended rather on the elevation of the spring than on its discharge – springs at higher altitudes had higher seasonality indices of discharge and a later date of its annual maximum discharge.