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Episodes 2020; 43(1): 358-368

Published online March 1, 2020


Copyright © International Union of Geological Sciences.

Himalayan Magmatism through space and time

Sandeep Singh

Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247 667 (India); E-mail: sandpfes@iitr.ernet.in

Correspondence to:E-mail: sandpfes@iitr.ernet.in

Received: October 25, 2018; Revised: May 20, 2019; Accepted: May 20, 2019

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Available ages from Himalayan domain indicate that Himalaya has experienced different episodes of magmatism starting from Paleoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic, Cambro-Ordovician, Permian through Cenozoic. The Indian and Eurasian Plates together document the Cretaceous and Cenozoic events after collision. The identified age peaks can be correlated with amalgamation and breakup of supercontinent cycles starting from Columbia/Nuna (Paleoproterozoic), Rodinia (Neoproterozoic), Gondwanian (Cambro- Ordovician), Pangaea (Permian) and Himalayan (Cretaceous to Tertiary). The Himalayan orogenesis incorporates subduction related magmatism followed by collisional magmatism until present time at or near syntaxial bends within the Himalayan domains. It is also very evident that spatially all granitic rocks have southernmost limit at sensu stricto Main Central Thrust (MCT). Paleoproterozoic magmatic rocks are exposed within window zone as well as basal parts of the Higher Himalayan Crystallines (HHC) just above the MCT, however, the Neoproterozoic bodies are restricted very close to the MCT. Cambro-Ordovician bodies are most widespread, whereas, the Permian magmatism is restricted to either to NW or NE Himalaya. But the Himalayan magmatism is present both in Indian as well as Eurasian Plates.