pISSN 0705-3797 eISSN 2586-1298
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Episodes 2019; 42(4): 301-311

Published online December 1, 2019


Copyright © International Union of Geological Sciences.

Fresh- and therapeutic groundwater mixing model in Tylicz region (Polish Carpathians)

Marek Wcisło* and Sebastian Buczyński

University of Wroclaw, Institute of Geological Sciences, pl. M. Borna 9, 50-204 Wrocław, Poland; *Corresponding author, E-mail: marek.wcislo@uwr.edu.pl

Correspondence to:*E-mail: marek.wcislo@uwr.edu.pl

Received: May 27, 2019; Revised: November 5, 2019; Accepted: November 5, 2019

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The fresh and therapeutic waters near Tylicz have been exploited for nearly 200 years and have come to play a crucial role in the region's economic development. Their chemical composition results from the mixing of (shallow) freshwater with therapeutic water found at depths of 100–200 m. In tectonic environments, both types of water become saturated with carbon dioxide. The overexploitation of either type of water can lead to changes in the way the water mixes and result in the alteration of its physical and chemical properties. The paper presents hydrodynamic model of water mixing drained by wells, basing on the composition and discharge of the waters. The model comprises seven layers to a depth of 900 m and accurately reflects the complex structure of the flysch facies. The well P-1 catchment was subjected to detailed analysis: here the changes in mineralization triggered by altered water are most visible and well-documented. Contrary to initial claims, the results seem to indicate that the exploitation of adjacent freshwater and therapeutic wells does not necessarily have any impact on the waters' chemical composition. It has, however, been proved that the composition of therapeutic water is strongly influenced by therapeutic water discharge.