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Episodes 2020; 43(1): 231-248

Published online March 1, 2020

https://doi.org/10.18814/epiiugs/2020/020014

Copyright © International Union of Geological Sciences.

Lamprophyres from the Indian shield: A review of their occurrence, petrology, tectonomagmatic significance and relationship with the Kimberlites and related rocks

N.V. Chalapathi Rao*, Rohit K. Giri, Abhinay Sharma and Ashutosh Pandey

EPMA and SEM laboratories, Department of Geology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India (*Corresponding author, Email: nvcrao@bhu.ac.in)

Correspondence to:Email: nvcrao@bhu.ac.in

Received: April 30, 2019; Revised: November 27, 2019; Accepted: November 27, 2019

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Lamprophyres are some of the oldest recognized alkaline rocks and have been studied for almost the last 150 years. Known for hosting economic minerals such as gold, diamond and base metals, they are also significant in our understanding of the deep-mantle processes (viz., mantle metasomatism and mantleplume-lithosphere interactions) as well as large-scale geodynamic processes (viz., subduction-tectonics, supercontinent amalgamation and break-up). The Indian shield is a collage of distinct cratonic blocks margined by the mobile belts and manifested by large igneous provinces (LIPs) such as the Deccan. A plethora of lamprophyres, varying in age from the Archaean to the Eocene, with diverse mineralogical and geochemical compositions, are recorded from the Indian shield and played a key role in clarifying the tectonic processes, especially during the Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic and the Late Cretaceous. A comprehensive review of the occurrence, petrology, geochemistry and origin of the Indian lamprophyres is provided here highlighting their tectonomagmatic significance. The relationship of the lamprophyres to the Kimberlite clan rocks (KCRs), focusing on the Indian examples, is also critically examined.