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Fig. 9.

Paleoeconstructions of the Ponto-Caspian basins during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene under GCC: a - Interglacial (MIS 5, Mikulino interglacial on the Eastern European Plain): Karangatian regression of the Pont (with ingression into the Manych valley) and the Late Khazarian transgression of the Caspian (isolated basin); b - Transition from Interglacial (MIS 5) to Glacial (MIS 4): beginning of the Karangatian transgression of the Pont and Girkanian transgression of the Caspian, Girkanian passage in the Manych Valley; c - Early Glacial (MIS 4, Early Valdai Glaciation on the Eastern European Plain), Glacial maximum: Post-Karangatian regression of the Pont and Atelian regression of the Caspian; d - Interstadial warming (MIS 3, Bryansk Interstadial on the Eastern European Plain), Glacial degradation: Tarkhankutian (Surozhian) basin of the Pont and beginning of the Early Khvalynian transgression of the Caspian; e - Late Glacial (MIS 2, Late Valdai Glaciation on the Eastern European Plain), Glacial maximum: the Early Neoeuxinian regression of the Pont and regression (Eltonian?) of the Early Khvalynian basin; f - Degradation of Glaciation (MIS 2): the Late Neoeuxinian transgression of the Pont and maximum of the Early Khvalynian transgression of the Caspian; e - Glacial degradation (MIS 2) and beginning of post-Glacial (MIS 1): the Late Neoeuxinian transgression of the Pont and Late Khvalynian transgression of the Caspian; h - Beginning of the Interglacial of the Holocene (MIS 1): beginning of the Chernorean (Black Sea) transgression of the Pont and the Mangyshlakian regression of the Caspian (modified after Yanina, 2014).

Episodes 2019;42:343~354 https://doi.org/10.18814/epiiugs/2019/019028
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